Mastering Digital Transformation: individual characteristics, skills and key capabilities
Stefano Bresciani, University of Turin, Italy (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Alberto Ferraris, University of Turin & Ural Federal University (Email: email@example.com).
Kun-Huang Huarng, National Taipei University of Business (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Amandeep Dhir, University of Adger (Email: email@example.com).
Article Type to select when submitting: Mastering Digital Transformation
Submission Window: 1st September 2021 - 30th January 2022
Digitalization is booming among businesses. Organizations of various type, size and industry, recognize the importance of starting a digital transformation journey to remain competitive in globalized arenas (e.g. Li, 2018). This paradigm shift is changing the way companies do business, how they organize processes and activities (e.g. Enkel et al., 2020) and how they create and capture value (Mithas et al., 2013; Hopp et al., 2018). As such, the literature on digital strategy, digitalization and digital transformation has grown exponentially in the last years (e.g. Hess et al., 2016; Scuotto et al., 2017; Bertello et al., 2020). On one side, studies have unveiled the various technologies that are revolutionizing the way companies do business, such as Artificial Intelligence, 4.0 machines, IoT, 3D printers, Big data, and Social media networks, among others (e.g. Bresciani et al., 2017). On the other side, studies have explored the impact of new technologies on business models (Alberti-Alhtaybat et al., 2019), business processes and activities (e.g. Wamba et al., 2018), internationalization (e.g. Bertello et al., 2020) and ultimately, firm performance (Gunasekaran et al., 2017).
With this regard, some studies explored specific internal capabilities needed to successfully exploit a digital transformation. For example, Ferraris et al. (2018) showed that firms that developed higher big data analytics capabilities increased their performance. Muninger et al. (2019) explored the specific organizational capabilities (top management understanding, knowledge management and networking) that allow firms to gain advantage from social media along the digital innovation process. El Sawy et al. (2016) highlighted the relevance of “digital leadership” as a critical factor to rethink differently the whole organization for the strategic success of digitalization in its business ecosystem. More recently, a special issue in the Journal of Business Research named “Digital transformation as a springboard for product, process and business model innovation” written by Bresciani et al. (forthcoming) explores specific digital skills and capabilities required for the success of the digital transformation journey.
Despite this, while practitioners and global consulting firms heavily emphasize the importance of the human component as the soft side of digital transformation processes, we still know very little about the role of people in the digital transformation journey in terms of how should be managed properly by the organization as well as their expected and differentiators characteristics and psychological foundations (Picone et al., 2021) or interplay (Zimmerman et al., 2020). In this regard, it is crucial to understand how and if conditions of individual actions (microfoundations) contribute or support the routines that lead to MNEs' effective management (Barney and Felin, 2013). As already argued in the past, microfoundations represent the individual-level actions that shape strategy, [and] organization’ (Eisenhardt et al., 2010, p. 1263). Further, Barney and Felin (2013, p. 145) emphasized its importance and appropriateness in this contemporary time: ‘…organization analysis should be fundamentally concerned with how individual-level factors aggregate to the collective level’. Also, social interactional microfoundations may be fundamental when people need to co-develop and co-create in the digital environment (e.g. Storbacka et al., 2016).
Accordingly, the scientific literature seems to lag behind the practical world. For example, it is necessary to evaluate innovation response behaviour's antecedents (e.g. Goepel et al., 2012; Dhir et al., 2016) to digital transformation. In this respect, studies might focus on emerging managerial roles and positions (chief digital officer, digital innovation officer, head of digital strategy, etc.) as well as their expected key personal characteristics and capabilities (e.g. Mansfeld et al., 2010; Singh and Hess, 2017; Singh et al., 2020) and on what role they play in stimulating a digital culture that is crucial in digital environments. It is thus clear that this “digital transformation” requires superior change management capabilities and the development of concrete human resource management (HRM) practices (Benson et al., 2002, Sousa et al., 2019). This is why digitalization is not just a matter of technology but rather a matter of strategy in which the human dimension plays a key role (Tabrizi et al., 2019). In this regard, empirical evidence suggests that employees can reject new digital strategies when they lead to extra workload, especially in unknown fields (Yeow et al., 2018) or in the light of the actual changes of work (e.g. Van Steenbergen et al., 2018).
Thus, this special issue aims to explore the role of micro-foundations (and people) in digital strategies and digital transformation processes. We welcome qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method approaches and, overall, research articles bridging the gap between theoretical conceptions and practical insights.
Such studies might be focused on, but not limited to, the following areas of research and related topics, within the topics of digital strategies, digitalization and digital transformation processes:
New emerging managerial roles for digital transformationThe role of the top management team in stimulating a digital cultureIndividual versus organizational capabilitiesAge, experience, gender and other socio-demographic variables and their impact on digital transformationNew skills and competences development for digital strategiesPsychological aspects of digital transformationIndividual managerial characteristics that affect digital transformationHuman characteristics and capabilities that nurture or prevent digital transformation
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